WL West & Son Ltd; Sawmillers Timber Merchants Fencing Contractors

W.L.WEST & SONS LTD Est.1865

inc. PRO Fencing

Sawmillers Timber Merchants Fencing Contractors
Hardwoods · Machining · Worktops · Cladding · Decking · Gates · Fencing and so much more . . .

Trade & Shop: Mon to Fri - 8am to 5pm     Email: sales@wlwest.co.uk
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Grown in Britain

Glossary of Timber Terms

1st

First Quality

1/2

Is a mix of 1st and 2nd quality timber. This can contain some sap wood, sound knots, cross grain, natural discolouration/streaking.

1/S/E

One square edge, One waney edge.

1+2 white 

This term is used for the general description of Maple, white on one  side, and on the reverse slight discolouration.

AD 

Air drying

Billet Sawn 

Growth ring 45-90° to face of board – heart split

BM 

Board Measure

Bow 

Centre of board raised higher than ends when on flat surface

Boule

French term for a Through & Through log, used in UK timber trade.

Brown Oak 

Quercus Robur with fistulina fungus

Case Hardening 

Tension set/ Compression set

Cats paw 

Epicormic growths

CND 

Colour No Defect

CTS 

Cut to the nominal sizes required

Cupping 

Board in tension on one face

Dead Knots 

Evidence of ingrown bark - unstable

DM 

Decimetre – square area of board

FAS 

First & Seconds (clean 1 Face)

Field/ Hunting

 Gate Parts

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HURR – The main vertical of the gate from which the gate hangs

HEAD – The second vertical

BACK – Top rail of the gate

SPLEATS – The remaining cross rails

BRACE – Strengthening rail built diagonally across the gate. SINGLE~CROSS(2 braces)~DIAMOND

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FIN 

Finish size

FE

Feather Edged

FS 

Fresh Sawn

FSC 

Forest Stewardship Council

FOM 

Free on motor, this is the term loaded safely onto the customers vehicle, but deemed ex-yard

FSP 

Fibre Saturation Point

Half a Knats

50% of a knats (see below)

Heartwood

The inner rings of the log.

Heart Shake 

A separation between adjacent layers of fibre, radial and due to shrinkage through seasoning or old age

KD 

Kiln dried

Knats

A very small measure (northern term)

Live Knots 

Absence of ingrown bark – stable

M/C 

Moisture Content

Merchantable 

Can include knots and face checks, constructionally sound

NHLA 

North American Hardwood Lumber Association

NOM 

Nominal size

P/2/S 

This refers to board being planed on two faces.

PAR 

Planed on all four faces (from the nominal sizes)

PEFC 

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification

`PTG 

Planed, Tongue and Groove

PTGV 

Planed, Tongue and Groove and ‘V’

Proforma 

Payment prior to order being actioned

Quarter Boards/ Quarter Sawn 

These boards are radially cut which expose the medullary rays. It is rare for sawmillers to cut logs using this method, as it increases both waste and cost to mill, therefore price to customer increases substantially.

Ring Shake 

Separation of one annual growth ring from another

Sapwood

The outer rings of the log, this can be very visible in some species eg: Oak, Yew, but almost visibly non-existent in others eg: Ash, Sycamore.

SE 

Square Edges

Smidgeon

Similar to Knats see above (southern term)

1SE

One square edge, one waney edge

Spp 

Species

Spot B*****K

Near as damn it!!!!

Spring 

Board laid flat but curved

Star Shake 

Excessive cross sectional drying in logs

STM 

Sufficient timber to make the order

Tangential Boards

These are boards from the Outside of the log

T/T 

Through and Through – A log sawmilled into plank and left with the bark edges on it.

Twist 

Propeller shaped board

Weather-board 

This can have a 1/S/E or square edge usually fresh sawn for external cladding.

     WE 

Waney Edged – as T/T above.

WRC

Western Red Cedar